S. Fluchs, G. Kasperk

The Influence of Government Incentives on Electric Vehicle Adoption: Cross-national Comparison

WCERE 2018 - 6th World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists, Gothenburg (forthcoming)


This paper examines the influence of political incentives which are set by the government and aim at promoting the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). More speci fically, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered. A classifi cation and categorization of diff erent incentives is provided and specifi ed for fi ve countries, namely Norway, Netherlands, Germany, United States and China. Additionally, an empirical study was performed for China and the Netherlands employing the method of time series (TS) analysis. Results reveal that government incentives a ffect EV market penetration but exact eff ects di ffer for both country and type of EV. In China, especially direct rebates increase EV adoption under certain circumstances. In the Netherlands, PHEVs‘ market share increases more compared to BEVs‘ market share if both vehicle types receive comparable incentives.

S. Fluchs

Government Incentives for EV Adoption: Classification of Existing Incentives and Assessment of Their Effectiveness

41st IAEE International Conference, 2018, Groningen


In this paper, an overview of the existing literature about government incentives for the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is provided. Applied incentives and measures in the most important global automotive markets are determined, clustered and analyzed regarding their effectiveness according to available research. Starting from the microeconomic theory of market equilibrium, different possibilities of government interventions with the aim of giving impulses for a higher market penetration of EVs are typified. The methods and data used in the existing research are collected building the basis for a detailed overview of the various research questions in existing literature as well as the results of different empirical studies. The paper concludes with an assessment of the existing literature and provides suggestions for directions of future research.

G. Kasperk, S. Fluchs

Frauen in der deutschen Automobilindustrie


Unternehmen der deutschen Automobilindustrie haben in den letzten fünf Jahren den Kurs zu einer offeneren, kreativen und kundenorientierten Unternehmenskultur eingeschlagen. Getrieben durch die gesellschaftlich-politisch geführte Diskussion um Frauen in Führungspositionen, motiviert durch die Knappheit ingenieurwissenschaftlicher Potenziale in Deutschland und mit dem Gespür für den Beitrag femininer Werte zu empathischeren Führungsstrukturen sind „Frauen in der deutschen Automobilindustrie“ ein hochaktuelles Thema für diese klassische Industrie.
Die vorliegende Studie leistet einen sehr persönlichen Beitrag zu dieser Diskussion. Mehr als hundert Studentinnen der RWTH Aachen und Mitarbeiterinnen in Unternehmen der deutschen Automobilindustrie haben sich Zeit genommen, in persönlichen Interviews höchst offen einen Einblick zu geben: warum sollten junge Frauen sich nach dem Studium für die Automobilindustrie entscheiden? Wie ist die Arbeitserfahrung auf verschiedenen Hierarchieebenen in diesen Unternehmen? Wie wird die Attraktivität dieser Unternehmen für hochmotivierte und gut ausgebildete Frauen gesteigert?

G. Kasperk, S. Fluchs

Luxus in der Automobilindustrie


Das Bewusstsein von Automobilkäufern ändert sich. Während das Auto als Eigentum besonders in urbanen Zentren tendenziell zu Gunsten eines integrierten Mobilitätsbedürfnisses an Bedeutung verliert, werden Umweltverträglichkeit und Vernetzung besonders für die jungen Käufer immer wichtiger. Die Frage ist, wie das Auto als Status-Symbol und Luxusgut in Zukunft interpretiert werden kann. Soll es äußerlich bescheidener und kleiner werden? Wie wird die Akzeptanz von Autos des Luxussegments zukünftig sein?
Das Center for International Automobile Management (CIAM) der RWTH Aachen hat 210 zukünftige Automobilnutzer aus verschiedenen ingenieur- und wirtschaftsingenieurwissenschaftlichen Studiengängen der RWTH Aachen in einer anonymisierten Studie befragt. Durch die Wahl ihrer Vertiefungsfächer können diese Studenten mit einem besonderen Interesse an der Automobilindustrie charakterisiert werden.

P. Müller, G. Kasperk, A. Kampker, C. Deutskens, F. Weynand, C. Ihl

Strong ties despite decentralized network design – An automotive case

2014 IEEE Innovations in Technology Conference (InnoTek), Warwick, RI / IEEE-USA


In the automotive industry alternative powertrains cause a wide spread of knowledge and a growing importance of varied disciplines. Consequently, research unveils a disruption of established relations and an emergence of new kinds of decentralized developments encouraging our research.
This paper introduces a networked development project which has attracted considerable attention in science and practice as it has realized the homologation of an electric vehicle within less than three years of development applying an uncommon network approach. In this project a decentralized consortial network has been implemented to accomplish the development of certain modules. We argue that despite a modular architecture these modules are still highly interdependent and thus corresponding technical interfaces need to be managed and implemented in the organizational structures. A relatively new facet of hypothesis-based research on these dependencies is the mirroring hypothesis which states that technical ties have to correspond to the communicational one. Accordingly, we combine and enhance measurements from different fields and thereby provide a solid approach to assess the strength of technical and organizational ties. The corresponding strength values are captured in matrices enabling the test of the mirroring hypothesis. While there are qualitative findings on the performance implications of mirroring in literature, we present a quantitative approach which should provide a stronger empirical underpinning for the qualitative research in this field.

P. Müller, A. Kampker, C. Deutskens, F. Basse

Promoting Innovation by Disruptive Networks: Learning from the High-Tech Industry?

Proceedings of 17th Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium, 2013


This paper examines development networks in the field of electric mobility. It is argued that the replacement of internal combustion engine disrupts existing supply chains and leads to the emergence of networks to overcome the OEM’s loss of information superiority. As the situation of widely dispersed knowledge is comparable to the setting of more science-driven industries, it is hypothesised that the findings of research on high-tech networks are transferable. Based on a systematic review and established methods of qualitative research two multi-dimensional models have been developed to capture correlations between the network design and its innovativeness. The datasets of two comparative case studies are used allowing us to test for the transferability of literature-derived causalities, with interesting results: we found support for our hypotheses that network practices of the high-tech industries also outperform in terms of innovation in the disrupted setting of electric vehicle development.

G. Kasperk, J. von Mangoldt, R. Drauz

Mixing Push & Pull to survive in China: Value Stream Design in an automotive case

3. Wissenschaftsforum Mobilität - "Future Trends in Mobility"


German automotive suppliers started operating their manufacturing plants in China without strategic planning or thoughtful implementation of the value stream, following hastily the enormous promises of the fastest growing automobile market in the world. Now, as competition and cost pressure erode the comfortable technological advantages combined with low labor costs, standard instruments like Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and lean principles are introduced to increase efficiency, transparency and control. However, as years of engraved routines result in considerable barriers especially in the Chinese context, culturally literate implementation approaches are required. An in-depth analysis of shortcomings with respect to value stream design using the case of a German automotive supplier in China delivers the basis for a culturally adapted value stream design concept. Key thereto is a mix of push and pull measures with extensive use of EKanban. Only a consequent implementation taking into account identified key success factors will allow German suppliers to develop competitive advantages for the Chinese market in the long run.

G. Kasperk, P. Müller, M. Endrikat, Y. Zhang

Barriers met by Chinese outward Foreign Direct Investment in Germany: a multi-level methodological approach


As a result of the continuous interest in foreign direct investment, also in Germany, there is a large body of studies analysing the determinants of such investments. This paper starts with a brief review of these studies‘ findings and additionally presents recent data on FDI stocks and flow. Interestingly, while China has the largest outward FDI of all developing countries and the fifth largest stock worldwide, the share of investments in Germany is still comparatively low. The presented research investigates the reasons of this under.representation of China in German FDI stocks. The results of a survey among 22 Chinese managers enhance our study and have given rise to the detailed investigation of cultural distance as a seemingly important determinant of FDI. Applying three methods of empiric research, regressions on a German state-level, survey and in-depth questionnaire, we thus provide a well-founded basis for our research and the derivation of interesting results: Based on our economic setup and reasonable assumptions, we conclude that there is a positive and statistically significant influence of cultural proximity on FDI inflows from Asia on a German state level being consistent with our finding in the interviews.

G. Kasperk, R. Drauz

Kooperationsstrategien von Automobilproduzenten entlang der sich neu ordnenden Wertschöpfungskette

3. Wissenschaftsforum Mobilität - "Future Trends in Mobility"


Elektromobilität wird die Geschäftsmodelle und Wertschöpfungsstrukturen der Automobilwirtschaft grundsätzlich verändern. Die bevorstehende Elektrifizierung des Straßenverkehrs bindet bisher branchenfremde Unternehmen wie Energieversorger und Mobilfunkbetreiber in eine erweiterte Wertschöpfungskette mit veränderten Ertragspotenzialen der Wertschöpfungs-stufen ein. Es erfolgt eine Orientierung an ganzheitlichen Mobilitätsdienstleistungen und die Auflösung bisheriger Wettbewerbsstrukturen. Neue Akteure und gleichzeitig ein Bedeutungs-verlust klassischer Absatzmärkte fordern von Automobilproduzenten eine neue Positionierung mit entsprechender Anpassung ihrer Kernkompetenzen. Das Management strategischer Kooperationen zählt zu den Kernkompetenzen, die noch an Bedeutung gewinnen werden. Up- und downstream Kooperationen sichern für OEMs einen Innovationsvorsprung in Bezug auf die wesentlichen Komponenten und Systeme der Elektromobilität. Durch ein umfassendes Angebot an Mobilitätsdienstleistungen wird der Kunden-zugang erhalten, was heute über eine zukünftige Positionierung entscheidet. Alternative Kooperationsmodelle für OEMs werden entlang der Wertschöpfungsstufen an sich abzeichnenden Praxisbeispielen analysiert und kategorisiert. Szenarien für eine langfristig überlebensfähige Wertschöpfungsstrategie der Automobilproduzenten werden generiert und auf Plausibilität hin evaluiert.

G. Kasperk, R. Drauz, J. Wilhelm, U. Laeuppi

Internationalization of Chinese Automobile Companies

International Automobile Management Series


China has been attracting considerable attention in its role as the fastest growing automobile market in the world. The media worldwide have been full of reports on the impressive sales figures being achieved by Western carmakers in the Chinese market.
However, as a result of Chinese automobile companies having recently implemented high-profile international acquisitions, the spotlight of attention is now shifting away from China as the world’s largest automotive market towards a focus on China’s own automobile companies in their transition to becoming tomorrow’s global competitors. To date, however, knowledge of the various internationalization approaches of Chinese OEMS has been limited. This book helps to fill that gap by delivering a structured analysis of the twelve major Chinese automotive companies with respect to their cross-border activities and providing an insight into the internationalization of the Chinese automobile value chain.